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An Introduction to ABS Properties and Modification Methods

April 29,2022

ABS resin is acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer, as one of the plastic types with very superior comprehensive performance, ABS on the one hand, market applications are opening up, on the other hand, through the development of new types and technical modification and alloy research, it is increasingly becoming the sixth largest, especially through modification, ABS derived more new types. It can be blended with a variety of resins to form alloys, with many varieties and wide applications, and is one of the main engineering plastics.

ABS physical properties

ABS is a light yellow granular or beaded opaque resin, non-toxic, tasteless, low water absorption, has good overall physical and mechanical properties, such as excellent electrical properties, wear resistance, dimensional stability, chemical resistance and appearance of gloss, and easy to process molding. The disadvantage is weather resistance, poor heat resistance, and flammability.

ABS plasticmechanical properties

ABS has excellent mechanical properties, its impact strength is excellent and can be used at very low temperatures; ABS has excellent wear resistance, good dimensional stability, and oil resistance, and can be used for bearings under medium load and speed. The mechanical properties of ABS are affected by temperature.

Application range of ABS

High gloss ABS is used for vacuum cleaners, electric fans, air conditioners, telephones and other home appliance products, which are reached by controlling the rubber particle size R+ (smaller) in ABS. Low gloss ABS is used for dashboards, instrument covers, pillars and other automotive interior parts, which are filled with coarse fillers to make microscopic shrinkage on the exterior and reduce the exterior gloss.

ABS species and characteristics

Fireproof (flame retardant) grade ABS:

ABS is a flammable material, according to the UL94 specification belongs to the HB level. ABS is fast extinguishing when it catches fire, and emits a lot of toxic gas and black smoke, which is not conducive to practical application. With the progress of science and technology and quality of life, people’s awareness of safety is getting stronger and stronger, domestic and foreign use of automotive, construction, household appliances, and other aspects of the plastic materials put forward strict fire retardant requirements, the development of the corresponding technical specifications and standards, and therefore the study has considerable significance.
Three main ways to reduce the quenchability of ABS resins:

1. Use flame retardant polymers to blend with ABS, such as CPE, PVC;

2. Chemical modification of existing ABS, such as the participation of tribrominated styrene as the fourth monomer to prepare four-component ABS;

3. Through the general approach to ABS to participate, including inorganic flame retardants (such as MoO3) and organic flame retardants (such as halogen compounds, phosphorus flame retardants). Flame retardant type has efficient flame retardant effect, but other properties may be bad (such as aging, high cost). Chemically modified ABS requires a specific consumption process and a more complex process. The third approach obtains a balance between cost and performance and is more sensitive in designing multifunctional materials. Currently, the flame retardant modification of ABS materials is based on the addition of highly efficient halogen-containing flame retardants.

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